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As PTI comes onto two years, I felt like making this post on account of seeing multiple people supporting PML-N for having an allegedly better economy for Pakistan, particularly with allegations present that PTI has done nothing for the economy. So here's a short list of some major achievements done by PTI in contrast to PML-N.
Stopping Pakistan from defaulting: The move to devalue the rupee was one done despite knowing the backlash that would be faced. Under Nawaz Sharif the rupee was artificially overvalued through loans and forex reserves, this meant Pakistan had no sustainable way for repaying those massive loans. Imran Khan on the other hand had to approach the IMF due to these overlaying maturing debts, lack of growth in exports under PMLN, decline in Foreign Direct Investment and an ever higher import bill. This was done at the cost of letting the rupee massively devalue against the dollar, however paved the path for economic stability as noted by the IMF.
Renewed focus on taxation: Easily the most controversial facet of the economic policy by PTI, but one that has shown merit and results. Overall, there has been a 40% increase in returns filers and a 17% revenue increase. This coupled with a massive austerity scheme, meant that the government has started an incline towards increasing it's revenues. While this hasn't been met with open arms, it presents a solution to the everpresent crisis that the Pakistan government has faced, in it's inability to increase it's revenues. Not only that, but the general taxation system was streamlined, making it easier for individuals to file taxes. Introductions of new apps and consolidating activities for the FBR were among the efforts as well. Moreover, businesses that were entitled to tax refunds are finally being granted them, under PMLN they were held onto so as to inflate collection numbers, however under PTI that has changed and it's not inflated. It is worth noting, that because of the covid-19 pandemic, the effect of the austerity schemes and feasibility have seriously dampened, and it's created a bigger problem for increasing revenue collection.
It is worth noting, that some may criticise the overall decrease in the account deficit to be a result of the decrease in imports, and the increase in worker remittances, however this was indeed a result of the overall economic impact from the covid-19 pandemic. And that general trends support the notion of exports increasing and the account deficit decreasing in the second quarter of 2019.
Tourism: The reforms and measures taken to facilitate tourism in Pakistan were evidently among the most successful — Pakistan went from being sidelined to being amongst the worlds top destinations to visit. There were multiple reasons for this, the removal of the mandatory NOC, the initiative for online visas for upto 175 countries alongside visa-on-arrival for 50 countries were among the facilitating measures taken for tourism.
Foreign Direct Investment: What can be appreciated is the general reception of Pakistan's economic outlook, where FDI climbed by upto 137% within this fiscal year, gathering upto nearly $2.1 billion. Yet, once again — the pandemic will undoubtedly cause most countries to rethink their economic policies for now, and the overall FDI might see a downward trend with regards to global decrease in FDI. Despite, the increases in FDI are welcomed, especially considering total foreign investment rose 380 percent to $2.375 billion in July-March FY2020. Yet the sustainability of this remains to be seen.
Dealing with covid: Despite all odds, Pakistan has somehow managed to deal well with the pandemic. Coming out relatively alright, in perspective of countries such as India, Mexico, Italy, Brazil etc. The factor that plays out, is that despite being incredibly vulnerable, the country managed to pull through and has markedly reduced the impact of the virus. With regards to the economy, taking a bold risk of abating a complete lockdown, whilst met with criticism was once again a factor that showed competency. Keeping in mind that 51 million Pakistanis lived below the poverty line, and the adverse effect it would have on the economy. Pakistan managed to come through the economic contraction with only a -0.38% growth. Although the full effects are still not abated or understood, what's commendable is the fact that Pakistan under PTI has kept itself from an even worse situation. Whilst managing to keep covid under relative control. Especially given increases in exports despite the pandemic in countries such as Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and Italy.
This is by no means a highly comprehensive list, just my opinion on some of the bigger achievements; saving the economy from defaulting, adopting tax reforms, tourism reforms, export reforms among them whilst managing covid and economic stability with relative success. There are of course a multitude of other factors, successfully avoiding a blacklist from the FATF, macroeconomic reforms, attempts to strengthen the working class; ehsaas programs, Naya Pakistan housing schemes alongside other relief efforts. These are measures in accordance with curtailing the effect of increasing taxation and attempts to abate the economic slowdown that came as a result of forcing an increase in government revenue. Alongside the focus on multiple new hydroelectric dams, industrial cities, reduction of the PM office staff from 552 to 298, 10 billion tree project and an overall renewed interest in renewable energy and green Pakistan. The list is comprehensive. Pakistan remains on a rocky path, it is not out of the woods yet. Covid-19 has seriously hampered the overall projections, and caused a worldwide economic contraction. Not only that, but there are criticisms that can be attributed to the government as well, as they are not without fault. However, the overall achievements of the government with regards to the economy do present hope for the long-term fiscal policy and development of Pakistan.
Have any of you radically changed your political views since childhood?
I grew up in a typical conservative middle-class household in the 90s. Like most conservative families, I grew up hearing about how horrible Sheikh Mujib became after 71, and how people were so relieved after he was murdered in 1975. This is something I heard from everyone, relatives, friends, etc. I, too, used to hate Sheikh Mujib. I thought he was a dictator, pro-India, anti-Islam, traitor, just wanted to be Pakistan's PM, etc. Of course, I was a teenager in the 2001-2006 period when the BNP-Jamat government rammed the entire country into the ground. There were hartals and oborodhs all the time, electricity used to go off every other hour, terrorist would blast a bomb every other week while the government would term it all as a "conspiracy", there was no development and we would stagger from one crisis to another. Mullahs would carry out misils all the time calling for Shariah law, and attacking Ahmadiyya houses. Khaleda Zia had zero control over the country. She just didn't have any leadership qualities. I felt that I wanted to leave this shithole as soon as I got the first opportunity. The BNP regime was interrupted by the caretaker government. Full of "highly educated" bureaucrats, I naturally supported them. But their "Minus 2" plan went nowhere, and they weren't being able to handle the country either. Fakhruddin Ahmed and Moinuddin Ahmed just didn't' have any leadership qualities either. Facing an unfavourable situation, they at least had the decency to organize elections and arrange a respectable exit for themselves. Then we the Awami League get power in 2008. I still hated them back then. Their first term, 2009-2013 was full of turmoil, with the "Shahbag movement" and the "ICT Tribunal" and the hanging of the senior Jamat leaders. But the country gradually started getting into shape. If you look at the economic indicators we started taking off in 2010. By 2014 political stability was re-established. This was all possible due to Sheikh Hasina's leadership qualities, which others lack. The Awami League's electricity reforms paid off, and loadshedding is largely over in Dhaka. Awami League drastically reduced prices of broadband internet, and we got access to bufferless YouTube for the first time. BNP was jumping up and down screaming that government was looting crores of taka under the name of quick rental power plants. But our forex reserves zoomed from 10 billion to 30 billion. New roads were being built everywhere and Bangladesh's Debt-to-GDP ratio remains one of the lowest in South Asia, and in the world. So I was really forced to re-evaluate my hatred of Awami League, Sheik Hasina and Sheikh Mujib. When I looked back at the life of Sheikh Mujib, I found that he dedicated his life to the people of East Bengal. He was a part of the Muslim League to get independence for us, and after witnessing the bloody religious riots changed his worldview to secular democratic socialism. That's something very admirable! That's not anti-Islam at all! And then he joined forces with India to free East Pakistan. That's not treason, his loyalty was to the people of East Pakistan. He single-handedly united 60 million very backward and uneducated people and led them to independence. After that, he presided over the creation of a Constitution that was secular, in a overwhelmingly rural, uneducated Muslim country. He could easily have given in to Saudi Arabia in return for oil, like so many Muslim countries, but did not compromise. He could have chosen to recognize Israel, and have gotten instant recognition and support from the West, but stayed firm to his principles of loyalty to the Palestinian people. All of his actions point towards the qualities of a great leader. Sheikh Mujib did not allow the Indians to stay in Bangladesh and ensured their withdrawal. Just have a look at countries around the world today. Look at Syria, where they have a bastard dictator who murders his own people, and an opposition full of traitors and terrorists. Look at Libya, where the people have no leadership. Look at India, where they are under the thrall of a fascist religious dictator Modi. Sudan is only establishing secularism in their constitution in 2020, while Bangladesh did it 50 years ago!!! Look at Iran, where people are all trying to escape their religious government. Look at Pakistan with their blasphemy laws and their mullahs trying to oppose any law against child marriage! We bypassed all of this thanks to Sheikh Mujib and his foresight!!! The closest leader who resembles Sheikh Mujib would be Mustafa Kemal Ataturk. While Ataturk was objectively greater than Sheikh Mujib, since he was an accomplished military leader who led the actual Turkish War of Independence himself, Ataturk also modernized a backward, rural, uneducated nation overnight into a modern, secular and democratic state. Of course, Ataturk has many haters. They also accuse him of being a dictator. But his achievements greatly overshadow any sacrifices that may have been required to achieve the goal of a modern independent Turkey. The same goes for Shiekh Mujib. Whatever are his faults, Rakkhi Bahini, BAKSAL, I am willing to forgive him for his leadership during our independence and his creation of a secular and democratic Bangladesh. Today we are blessed to have his daughter Sheikh Hasina in power. Lots of you might call her "fascist". That's such a lazy and pathetic position to take. Trust me, if there was any other leader other than SH as PM the government would be just as "fascist" as her government is now. Its so easy to sit back behind a PC and cry "fascist fascist fascist". YOU try organizing a political party in a nation of 165 million people, and then successfully leading that country on the path towards economic development. Without a doubt, if those crying 'fascist fascist' were put into power as PM they would be 100 times more fascistic than Sheikh Hasina is right now. Without a doubt, human rights abuses occur under her. Abrar was beaten to death by BCL thugs (which was fully supported by the 'humanist' Taslima Nasrin btw). But those BCL thugs are in jail now. Major Sinha Rashed Khan was murdered by OC Liakat and Prodip. Both of them are in jail. If SH was as fascist as people claim, they would be out in the streets, like the Hindu thugs who carried out the Delhi riots in February, or the terrorist Mullahs in Pakistan who forcibly convert and kidnap Christian girls. So, from what I have seen, Awami League is an organic political party of the people of East Bengal. They have deeper roots in the hearts of the people than any other political movement. And they should be lauded because they have established secularism and inclusive nationalism where there is space for Bangladeshis of all religions and ethnicities in a united Bangladesh. While sometimes they have acted in a fascist manner, it is excusable because there is no other alternative in Bangladesh who can win elections and be more liberal than BAL. Instead of pathetically criticizing them, those who want the best for Bangladesh should work with them in order to reduce the human rights abuses which do still occur. BAL will be remembered in history like the PAP of Singapore, or the UMNO of Malaysia, or the Chinese Communist Party; all of whom were authoritarian, who were accused of being fascist, but ultimately ensured the evolution of their societies from backward uneducated agricultural societies to modern, secular democratic industrial ones.
A friend of mine was contacted via Linkedin by a member of PROCRYPTOFX!!!!!!! I decided to investigate a bit and... Well, this happened. Welcome to our site, if you need help simply reply to this message, we are online and ready to help. hey there, I would like to know a bit more about the company It seems this tool is not working as intended is it? Hello Your name please why do you need my name though? no offense, but I find you asking for my name straight away a bit weird I am not registered in your website yet We need to know who we chatting with isn't a potential customer enough for you? You welcome So how can we be of help to you please so I've seen you've been running since 2013 but I've never heard of you before and I've seen you're registered in the UK is that correct? Yes that's correct do you offer both cryptocurrency trading and forex trading? Yes any guarantee on my funds? if I ever deposit? Sure We have an Auxiliary trading decoder we connect to our clients trading account what does Auxiliary trading decoder mean? It's a software used in trading how does that software protect me in case the platform goes bankrupt? I am asking since I read a lot about exit scams That software prevent your account from losing trade kind of a stop loss? I am not talking about that kind of protection here Yes I am asking about the company liability I mean I understand And your funds is 100% safe and guaranteed Okay I expected a more detailed answer here, no offense I have provided you the answers you need What other questions did you ask please? as a customer worried about how the funds are guaranteed, this answer makes it look like you deliberately don't want to go into detail on the matter again no offense, it is a big red flag to me don't you think so? We are the trading company and you don't expect us to give you our secrets of how we make our profit I have never asked for that, and it's obvious how trading companies make profit All you need to be worried about is your profit I am asking which authority guarantees my funds it's not that much of a deal, is it? additionally, the question is answered in your regulation tab, something that you should be aware of to begin with It's our duty to always protect our clients and their profit Okay your duty should be to provide customers with accurate information, and in this case the information I asked for is disclosed in your own website (red flag n2) now my follow up question, if you don't mind the FCA (yes, the answer I was looking for) is an UK authority, and I am an European citizen how would Brexit affect my protection? I am a bit worried since you are registered in the UK, and you state "As an investment firm authorised by a regulator of an EU Member State, Procryptofx Limited is allowed to offer its services on a cross border basis to the EU Member States that permit the provision of our services in their jurisdictions and we are duly registered with their respective competent authorities" if I am not mistaken, no deal has been reached yet between the UK and the EU on the matter could you guarantee the safety of my funds in the event of a hard Brexit? hello? are you there sir? Yes Your funds is safe Talking about the UK and the EU If they have any issues that does not mean it would affect your funds in the company Okay I see you are skeptical about this skeptical? don't you thing these concerns are legit? ok, I'm taking your word one last question if you don't mind are you actively recruiting? I might have been contacted via Linkedin by a supposed procryptofx recruiter What's the name of the person who referred you to us? hold the line pls Am waiting Are you there yes sir trying to get the conversation it looks like it vanished just gimme a minute she was a woman speaking on behalf of your company but I am trying to get the name Am waiting thanks for your patience We are always here to give you the best her name is XXXXXXX I see She's one of our account manager I see thanks for letting me know no more questions from my side You welcome So when do you intend to get started with us? I'll create an account on the weekend!
No, the British did not steal $45 trillion from India
This is an updated copy of the version on BadHistory. I plan to update it in accordance with the feedback I got. I'd like to thank two people who will remain anonymous for helping me greatly with this post (you know who you are) Three years ago a festschrift for Binay Bhushan Chaudhuri was published by Shubhra Chakrabarti, a history teacher at the University of Delhi and Utsa Patnaik, a Marxist economist who taught at JNU until 2010. One of the essays in the festschirt by Utsa Patnaik was an attempt to quantify the "drain" undergone by India during British Rule. Her conclusion? Britain robbed India of $45 trillion (or £9.2 trillion) during their 200 or so years of rule. This figure was immensely popular, and got republished in several major news outlets (here, here, here, here (they get the number wrong) and more recently here), got a mention from the Minister of External Affairs & returns 29,100 results on Google. There's also plenty of references to it here on Reddit. Patnaik is not the first to calculate such a figure. Angus Maddison thought it was £100 million, Simon Digby said £1 billion, Javier Estaban said £40 million see Roy (2019). The huge range of figures should set off some alarm bells. So how did Patnaik calculate this (shockingly large) figure? Well, even though I don't have access to the festschrift, she conveniently has written an article detailing her methodology here. Let's have a look.
How exactly did the British manage to diddle us and drain our wealth’ ? was the question that Basudev Chatterjee (later editor of a volume in the Towards Freedom project) had posed to me 50 years ago when we were fellow-students abroad.
This is begging the question.
After decades of research I find that using India’s commodity export surplus as the measure and applying an interest rate of 5%, the total drain from 1765 to 1938, compounded up to 2016, comes to £9.2 trillion; since $4.86 exchanged for £1 those days, this sum equals about $45 trillion.
This is completely meaningless. To understand why it's meaningless consider India's annual coconut exports. These are almost certainly a surplus but the surplus in trade is countered by the other country buying the product (indeed, by definition, trade surpluses contribute to the GDP of a nation which hardly plays into intuitive conceptualisations of drain). Furthermore, Dewey (2019) critiques the 5% interest rate.
She [Patnaik] consistently adopts statistical assumptions (such as compound interest at a rate of 5% per annum over centuries) that exaggerate the magnitude of the drain
The exact mechanism of drain, or transfers from India to Britain was quite simple.
Drain theory possessed the political merit of being easily grasped by a nation of peasants. [...] No other idea could arouse people than the thought that they were being taxed so that others in far off lands might live in comfort. [...] It was, therefore, inevitable that the drain theory became the main staple of nationalist political agitation during the Gandhian era.
The key factor was Britain’s control over our taxation revenues combined with control over India’s financial gold and forex earnings from its booming commodity export surplus with the world. Simply put, Britain used locally raised rupee tax revenues to pay for its net import of goods, a highly abnormal use of budgetary funds not seen in any sovereign country.
The issue with figures like these is they all make certain methodological assumptions that are impossible to prove. From Roy in Frankema et al. (2019):
the "drain theory" of Indian poverty cannot be tested with evidence, for several reasons. First, it rests on the counterfactual that any money saved on account of factor payments abroad would translate into domestic investment, which can never be proved. Second, it rests on "the primitive notion that all payments to foreigners are "drain"", that is, on the assumption that these payments did not contribute to domestic national income to the equivalent extent (Kumar 1985, 384; see also Chaudhuri 1968). Again, this cannot be tested. [...] Fourth, while British officers serving India did receive salaries that were many times that of the average income in India, a paper using cross-country data shows that colonies with better paid officers were governed better (Jones 2013).
Indeed, drain theory rests on some very weak foundations. This, in of itself, should be enough to dismiss any of the other figures that get thrown out. Nonetheless, I felt it would be a useful exercise to continue exploring Patnaik's take on drain theory.
The East India Company from 1765 onwards allocated every year up to one-third of Indian budgetary revenues net of collection costs, to buy a large volume of goods for direct import into Britain, far in excess of that country’s own needs.
So what's going on here? Well Roy (2019) explains it better:
Colonial India ran an export surplus, which, together with foreign investment, was used to pay for services purchased from Britain. These payments included interest on public debt, salaries, and pensions paid to government offcers who had come from Britain, salaries of managers and engineers, guaranteed profts paid to railway companies, and repatriated business profts. How do we know that any of these payments involved paying too much? The answer is we do not.
So what was really happening is the government was paying its workers for services (as well as guaranteeing profits - to promote investment - something the GoI does today Dalal (2019), and promoting business in India), and those workers were remitting some of that money to Britain. This is hardly a drain (unless, of course, Indian diaspora around the world today are "draining" it). In some cases, the remittances would take the form of goods (as described) see Chaudhuri (1983):
It is obvious that these debit items were financed through the export surplus on merchandise account, and later, when railway construction started on a large scale in India, through capital import. Until 1833 the East India Company followed a cumbersome method in remitting the annual home charges. This was to purchase export commodities in India out of revenue, which were then shipped to London and the proceeds from their sale handed over to the home treasury.
While Roy's earlier point argues better paid officers governed better, it is honestly impossible to say what part of the repatriated export surplus was a drain, and what was not. However calling all of it a drain is definitely misguided. It's worth noting that Patnaik seems to make no attempt to quantify the benefits of the Raj either, Dewey (2019)'s 2nd criticism:
she [Patnaik] consistently ignores research that would tend to cut the economic impact of the drain down to size, such as the work on the sources of investment during the industrial revolution (which shows that industrialisation was financed by the ploughed-back profits of industrialists) or the costs of empire school (which stresses the high price of imperial defence)
Since tropical goods were highly prized in other cold temperate countries which could never produce them, in effect these free goods represented international purchasing power for Britain which kept a part for its own use and re-exported the balance to other countries in Europe and North America against import of food grains, iron and other goods in which it was deficient.
Re-exports necessarily adds value to goods when the goods are processed and when the goods are transported. The country with the largest navy at the time would presumably be in very good stead to do the latter.
The British historians Phyllis Deane and WA Cole presented an incorrect estimate of Britain’s 18th-19th century trade volume, by leaving out re-exports completely. I found that by 1800 Britain’s total trade was 62% higher than their estimate, on applying the correct definition of trade including re-exports, that is used by the United Nations and by all other international organisations.
While interesting, and certainly expected for such an old book, re-exporting necessarily adds value to goods.
When the Crown took over from the Company, from 1861 a clever system was developed under which all of India’s financial gold and forex earnings from its fast-rising commodity export surplus with the world, was intercepted and appropriated by Britain. As before up to a third of India’s rising budgetary revenues was not spent domestically but was set aside as ‘expenditure abroad’.
So, what does this mean? Britain appropriated all of India's earnings, and then spent a third of it aboard? Not exactly. She is describing home charges see Roy (2019) again:
Some of the expenditures on defense and administration were made in sterling and went out of the country. This payment by the government was known as the Home Charges. For example, interest payment on loans raised to finance construction of railways and irrigation works, pensions paid to retired officers, and purchase of stores, were payments in sterling. [...] almost all money that the government paid abroad corresponded to the purchase of a service from abroad. [...] The balance of payments system that emerged after 1800 was based on standard business principles.India bought something and paid for it.State revenues were used to pay for wages of people hired abroad, pay for interest on loans raised abroad, and repatriation of profits on foreign investments coming into India. These were legitimate market transactions.
Indeed, if paying for what you buy is drain, then several billions of us are drained every day.
The Secretary of State for India in Council, based in London, invited foreign importers to deposit with him the payment (in gold, sterling and their own currencies) for their net imports from India, and these gold and forex payments disappeared into the yawning maw of the SoS’s account in the Bank of England.
It should be noted that India having two heads was beneficial, and encouraged investment per Roy (2019):
The fact that the India Office in London managed a part of the monetary system made India creditworthy, stabilized its currency, and encouraged foreign savers to put money into railways and private enterprise in India. Current research on the history of public debt shows that stable and large colonies found it easier to borrow abroad than independent economies because the investors trusted the guarantee of the colonist powers.
Against India’s net foreign earnings he issued bills, termed Council bills (CBs), to an equivalent rupee value. The rate (between gold-linked sterling and silver rupee) at which the bills were issued, was carefully adjusted to the last farthing, so that foreigners would never find it more profitable to ship financial gold as payment directly to Indians, compared to using the CB route. Foreign importers then sent the CBs by post or by telegraph to the export houses in India, that via the exchange banks were paid out of the budgeted provision of sums under ‘expenditure abroad’, and the exporters in turn paid the producers (peasants and artisans) from whom they sourced the goods.
Sunderland (2013) argues CBs had two main roles (and neither were part of a grand plot to keep gold out of India):
Council bills had two roles. They firstly promoted trade by handing the IO some control of the rate of exchange and allowing the exchange banks to remit funds to India and to hedge currency transaction risks. They also enabled the Indian government to transfer cash to England for the payment of its UK commitments.
The United Nations (1962) historical data for 1900 to 1960, show that for three decades up to 1928 (and very likely earlier too) India posted the second highest merchandise export surplus in the world, with USA in the first position. Not only were Indians deprived of every bit of the enormous international purchasing power they had earned over 175 years, even its rupee equivalent was not issued to them since not even the colonial government was credited with any part of India’s net gold and forex earnings against which it could issue rupees. The sleight-of-hand employed, namely ‘paying’ producers out of their own taxes, made India’s export surplus unrequited and constituted a tax-financed drain to the metropolis, as had been correctly pointed out by those highly insightful classical writers, Dadabhai Naoroji and RCDutt.
It doesn't appear that others appreciate their insight Roy (2019):
K. N. Chaudhuri rightly calls such practice ‘confused’ economics ‘coloured by political feelings’.
Surplus budgets to effect such heavy tax-financed transfers had a severe employment–reducing and income-deflating effect: mass consumption was squeezed in order to release export goods. Per capita annual foodgrains absorption in British India declined from 210 kg. during the period 1904-09, to 157 kg. during 1937-41, and to only 137 kg by 1946.
If even a part of its enormous foreign earnings had been credited to it and not entirely siphoned off, India could have imported modern technology to build up an industrial structure as Japan was doing.
This is, unfortunately, impossible to prove. Had the British not arrived in India, there is no clear indication that India would've united (this is arguably more plausible than the given counterfactual1). Had the British not arrived in India, there is no clear indication India would not have been nuked in WW2, much like Japan. Had the British not arrived in India, there is no clear indication India would not have been invaded by lizard people, much like Japan. The list continues eternally. Nevertheless, I will charitably examine the given counterfactual anyway. Did pre-colonial India have industrial potential? The answer is a resounding no. From Gupta (1980):
This article starts from the premise that while economic categories - the extent of commodity production, wage labour, monetarisation of the economy, etc - should be the basis for any analysis of the production relations of pre-British India, it is the nature of class struggles arising out of particular class alignments that finally gives the decisive twist to social change. Arguing on this premise, and analysing the available evidence, this article concludes that there was little potential for industrial revolution before the British arrived in India because, whatever might have been the character of economic categories of that period,the class relations had not sufficiently matured to develop productive forces and the required class struggle for a 'revolution' to take place.
Yet all of this did not amount to an economic situation comparable to that of western Europe on the eve of the industrial revolution. Her technology - in agriculture as well as manufacturers - had by and large been stagnant for centuries. [...] The weakness of the Indian economy in the mid-eighteenth century, as compared to pre-industrial Europe was not simply a matter of technology and commercial and industrial organization. No scientific or geographical revolution formed part of the eighteenth-century Indian's historical experience. [...] Spontaneous movement towards industrialisation is unlikely in such a situation.
So now we've established India did not have industrial potential, was India similar to Japan just before the Meiji era? The answer, yet again, unsurprisingly, is no. Japan's economic situation was not comparable to India's, which allowed for Japan to finance its revolution. From Yasuba (1986):
All in all, the Japanese standard of living may not have been much below the English standard of living before industrialization, and both of them may have been considerably higher than the Indian standard of living. We can no longer say that Japan started from a pathetically low economic level and achieved a rapid or even "miraculous" economic growth. Japan's per capita income was almost as high as in Western Europe before industrialization, and it was possible for Japan to produce surplus in the Meiji Period to finance private and public capital formation.
The circumstances that led to Meiji Japan were extremely unique. See Tomlinson (1985):
Most modern comparisons between India and Japan, written by either Indianists or Japanese specialists, stress instead that industrial growth in Meiji Japan was the product of unique features that were not reproducible elsewhere. [...] it is undoubtably true that Japan's progress to industrialization has been unique and unrepeatable
So there you have it. Unsubstantiated statistical assumptions, calling any number you can a drain & assuming a counterfactual for no good reason gets you this $45 trillion number. Hopefully that's enough to bury it in the ground. 1. Several authors have affirmed that Indian identity is a colonial artefact. For example seeRajan 1969:
Perhaps the single greatest and most enduring impact of British rule over India is that it created an Indian nation, in the modern political sense. After centuries of rule by different dynasties overparts of the Indian sub-continent, and after about 100 years of British rule, Indians ceased to be merely Bengalis, Maharashtrians,or Tamils, linguistically and culturally.
But then, it would be anachronistic to condemn eighteenth-century Indians, who served the British, as collaborators, when the notion of 'democratic' nationalism or of an Indian 'nation' did not then exist.[...]Indians who fought for them, differed from the Europeans in having a primary attachment to a non-belligerent religion, family and local chief, which was stronger than any identity they might have with a more remote prince or 'nation'.
Chakrabarti, Shubra & Patnaik, Utsa (2018). Agrarian and other histories: Essays for Binay Bhushan Chaudhuri. Colombia University Press Hickel, Jason (2018). How the British stole $45 trillion from India. The Guardian Bhuyan, Aroonim & Sharma, Krishan (2019). The Great Loot: How the British stole $45 trillion from India. Indiapost Monbiot, George (2020). English Landowners have stolen our rights. It is time to reclaim them. The Guardian Tsjeng, Zing (2020). How Britain Stole $45 trillion from India with trains | Empires of Dirt. Vice Chaudhury, Dipanjan (2019). British looted $45 trillion from India in today’s value: Jaishankar. The Economic Times Roy, Tirthankar (2019). How British rule changed India's economy: The Paradox of the Raj. Palgrave Macmillan Patnaik, Utsa (2018). How the British impoverished India. Hindustan Times Tuovila, Alicia (2019). Expenditure method. Investopedia Dewey, Clive (2019). Changing the guard: The dissolution of the nationalist–Marxist orthodoxy in the agrarian and agricultural history of India. The Indian Economic & Social History Review Chandra, Bipan et al. (1989). India's Struggle for Independence, 1857-1947. Penguin Books Frankema, Ewout & Booth, Anne (2019). Fiscal Capacity and the Colonial State in Asia and Africa, c. 1850-1960. Cambridge University Press Dalal, Sucheta (2019). IL&FS Controversy: Centre is Paying Up on Sovereign Guarantees to ADB, KfW for Group's Loan. TheWire Chaudhuri, K.N. (1983). X - Foreign Trade and Balance of Payments (1757–1947). Cambridge University Press Sunderland, David (2013). Financing the Raj: The City of London and Colonial India, 1858-1940. Boydell Press Dewey, Clive (1978). Patwari and Chaukidar: Subordinate officials and the reliability of India’s agricultural statistics. Athlone Press Smith, Lisa (2015). The great Indian calorie debate: Explaining rising undernourishment during India’s rapid economic growth. Food Policy Duh, Josephine & Spears, Dean (2016). Health and Hunger: Disease, Energy Needs, and the Indian Calorie Consumption Puzzle. The Economic Journal Vankatesh, P. et al. (2016). Relationship between Food Production and Consumption Diversity in India – Empirical Evidences from Cross Section Analysis. Agricultural Economics Research Review Gupta, Shaibal (1980). Potential of Industrial Revolution in Pre-British India. Economic and Political Weekly Raychaudhuri, Tapan (1983). I - The mid-eighteenth-century background. Cambridge University Press Yasuba, Yasukichi (1986). Standard of Living in Japan Before Industrialization: From what Level did Japan Begin? A Comment. The Journal of Economic History Tomblinson, B.R. (1985). Writing History Sideways: Lessons for Indian Economic Historians from Meiji Japan. Cambridge University Press Rajan, M.S. (1969). The Impact of British Rule in India. Journal of Contemporary History Bryant, G.J. (2000). Indigenous Mercenaries in the Service of European Imperialists: The Case of the Sepoys in the Early British Indian Army, 1750-1800. War in History
Barclay Stone CFD Forex broker, opinia: Amazon nie pozostawia konkurencji, uruchamiając dostawę za pomocą dronów
Niedawno Amazon otrzymał pozwolenie od Federalnej Administracji Lotnictwa USA (FAA) na wykonywanie podróży lotniczych i pozwolenie na dostarczanie towarów za pomocą dronów. Amazon już stworzył drona, który może zastąpić kurierów - jest to dron-heksakoptera MK27, podnoszący ładunki o wadze do 2,5 kg. Kilka lat temu firma opatentowała nawet specjalną wieżę-ulej dla dronów (do startu i lądowania dronów, a także dla obsługiwania dostawy automatycznej i klientów). Chociaż nie jest to pełnoprawna premiera, Amazon testuje ten pomysł na kilku witrynach testowych w USA. Projekt Amazon Prime Air wystartował jeszcze w 2013 roku, ale duża liczba ograniczeń sprzętowych i problemów bezpieczeństwa związanych z wprowadzeniem dronów, spowalnia proces zastępowania ludzi robotami. Poza tym, projekt jest niesamowicie drogi. Oczywiście wprowadzenie dostawy za pomocą dronów, zwiększa zainteresowanie inwestorów i popyt na usługi Amazona nad konkurencją. Po ogłoszeniu tej wiadomości wartość akcji spółki wzrosła o 2%. Zapraszamy na nasząplatformę handlową. Obejrz recenzję na brokera tu:https://www.rubaltic.ru/press/barclay-stone-recenzja-platformy-handlowej-oraz-opinie-o-firmie/ https://preview.redd.it/r415zraz6dp51.jpg?width=299&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=d716e4ce87f7df96f31ad4d9078e1fe69a83bb2a #forex #amazon #barclaystonecfd #broker #forexbroker #giełda #rynekwalutowy #handel #akcjeforex #kryptowaluta #drone
Top five scams with BTC and cryptocurrencies in Venezuela active this 2020. And maybe other parts. In your countries which states are known?
1-The hacker "El Esteban": He stole cryptocurrencies from accounts abroad .. He was moderately discovered by local authorities but never the identity of the person. 2-IM Mastery Academy (The New Economy). It's actually the same old pyramid scheme born in 2013, iMarketsLive (IML). A supposed academy that will allow you great income in a short time investing with cryptocurrencies and in the stock market. 3-DoubleWay. I think this is one of the most popular, the promise is to join their ETH smart contract and in a few weeks you will level up and have profits, however you had to find people to associate and level up. "All the management of the website is made up of a classic pyramid scheme" 4-FF Token; a Token promoted by a recognized actor in the country, however this currency does not have an investment structure or any roadmap, it is also promoted as "The cryptocurrency that could become the new BTC". Now, the person behind this token already has a history with other scam assets for more than 1500 million dollars. 5-Fergcryptoption: and this last one looks like many other scams. They describe themselves as a company dedicated to cloud mining, trading, and Forex. The omission of data as important as how many miners they own, where they are and how much they mine per day is something that should be noticed at first glance. In other words, it has the biggest red flags of scam. Comment below on the scams that have become known in their countries.
In 1947, India had just Rs 1500 crore cash. Today, we are about to cross $500 billion in foreign reserves. We have come a long way
In 1947, when India got independence, we had just Rs 1500 crore in cash with us, and even paying Rs 55 crore to Pakistan was a big deal. Mahatma Gandhi had to keep a day's fast to convince Vallabhbhai Patel to transfer Rs 55 crore to Pakistan. Then we started storing foreign reserves to the calamity and emergency. In 1960, India had foreign reserves of $1.46 billion, which could have lasted just 8 weeks of import. In 1980, India had foreign reserves of $7 billion In 1991, India's foreign reserves dipped to an alarming level of just $1.2 billion, which could have lasted just 3 weeks of imports. RBI had to pledge 46.91 tonnes of gold with the Bank of England and the Bank of Japan, and raised $400 million to deal with the unprecedented crisis In 2004, for the first time, we achieved foreign reserves of $100 billion Due to solid performance of our foreign reserves, we somehow navigated the recession of 2009, and our foreign reserves stood at $270 billion And now, for the first time in our history, India will have $500 billion of foreign reserves. As of now, we have $493 billion, which is enough to sustain 17 months of imports. We are right now world's 3rd biggest nation with foreign reserves, after China and Japan. India has indeed come a long way from having just Rs 1500 crore in cash to pledging Gold to sustain the economy, to crossing half a trillion-dollar of foreign reserves. Sources: 12345
Forex là một kênh giao dịch ngoại hối thu hút sự quan tâm của rất nhiều các nhà đầu tư hiện nay. Nhưng trước khi đầu tư, chắc hẳn ai cũng thắc mắcđầu tư forex có hợp phápkhông ? Bài viết này sẽ đi sâu tìm hiểu vấn đề này để cho người đọc cái nhìn khách quan nhất. Forex là gì? Forex – Foreign Exchange là quá trình trao đổi ngoại tệ / ngoại hối, và là thị trường tài chính lớn nhất thế giới, với số lượng tiền giao dịch mỗi ngày lên dến 1.95 nghìn tỉ USD ( 2006 ) và năm 2013 là khoảng 4,000 tỷ USD ( 3,98 trillion USD, theo thống kê từ năm 2013). Các sàn giao dịch Forex thường có trụ sở chính tại nước ngoài, như Sàn Forex.com Uk tại Anh quốc, FXDD ở Mỹ, FXpro ở châu Âu. Các sàn forex này có được đăng ký kinh doanh hợp pháp tại các cơ quan ở nước sở tại, do đó sàn đảm bảo không thực hiện các hành vi gian lận, qua mặt khách hàng. Những sàn giao dịch này có thể giao dịch đối xứng, tương tác với khách hàng. Đầu tư Forex có hợp pháp không ? Các ngân hàng thương mại Việt Nam hiện nay hạn chế việc chuyển tiền ra nước ngoài. Pháp lệnh ngoại hối Việt Nam có quy định cấm các cá nhân giao dịch ngoại hối (có hiệu lực từ tháng 3/2010) nhưng chỉ cấm trên lãnh thổ Việt Nam. Trong khi các sàn giao dịch forex trụ sở chính là ở nước ngoài, môi giới cũng ở nước ngoài, họ có đăng ký kinh doanh và đã đạt tiêu chuẩn bắt buộc của các sở giao dịch, hoạt động ngoại hối ở nước sở tại. Thực tế cho thấy các sàn forex phải tuần thủ theo đúng luật nên mới có thể hoạt động hàng chục năm. Nếu các nhà đầu tư quyết định đầu tư vào forex suy cho cùng cũng không phải bất hợp pháp bởi các cá nhân đó không tự động thực hiện giao dịch ngoại hối chuyển tiền ra nước ngoài mà thông qua một sàn giao dịch đã được đăng kí hợp pháp tại nước sở tại. Điều này hoàn toàn không trái với pháp luật Việt Nam. Thực tế cho thấy ở Việt Nam đúng là các nhà chức trách và pháp luật chưa cho phép, thừa nhận hình thức đầu tư forex. Các sàn forex, các công ty mở ra cho các nhà đầu tư mở tài khoản giao dịch forex cũng là mở theo đường tiểu ngạch, không chính thức đăng kí kinh doanh. Tuy nhiên, nếu xét về luật thì ta thấy không có luật nào của Việt Nam cấm việc đầu tư vào forex, chính vì thế nên các công ty này vẫn tồn tại. Bằng chứng cho thấy ở miền bắc nước ta hiện nay có khoảng 40 sàn vàng và sàn giao dịch forex vẫn hoạt động. Ở Cần Thơ gần đây cũng đã xuất hiện các sàn giao dịch này. Xét về bản chất thì đây là một kênh đầu tư rất tốt, một sàn giao dịch tốt cho các nhà đầu tư và nó hoàn toàn hợp pháp ở các nước trên thế giới hiện nay, tuy nhiên, đối với Việt Nam thì nhà nước vẫn chưa cho phép nhưng cũng không cấm. Nói cách khác, đầu tư forex không phải là một hoạt động bất hợp pháp, mà đầu tư forex có hợp pháp, vì thế nếu muốn, các bạn hoàn toàn vẫn có thể đầu tư. Như vậy, trên đây là các quan điểm cũng như các phân tích để đưa ra kết luận đầu tư forex có hợp pháp hay không.
Target Trading in the Forex upcoming week of July 21st ,2013
$EURUSD What Forex Target Traders See: We are currently sitting @ 1.3152 testing the Day chart trend line in a wedge. We are waiting to see if we get a break out up since the structure says we should sell to the [email protected] 1.2806. A break out higher (and an opportunity to sell higher) is at the 1.3183 area. The average (14 day) daily true range (ATR) for the pair currently is 119 pips. ——————————————————————————– $USDJPY What Forex Target Traders See: We are currently @ 100.35 in a day chart up trend. Looking for a move all the way to 103.00 and maybe to 103.64. We are looking to buy on dips in the channel to the upside. Watch for the correction at the 102.26 area.The average (14 day) daily true range (ATR) for the pair currently is 116 pips. ——————————————————————————– $GBPUSD What Forex Target Traders See: Cable is currently @ 1.5274. I wrote last week: “Watch for a break of the corrective move for the Resistance @ 1.5274 then a move south”. We are looking now to short to the .500 fibo @ 1.5048 after a head and shoulders. The average (14 day) daily true range (ATR) for the pair currently is 149 pips. ——————————————————————————– $AUDUSD – A great smooth currency for Newbie’s! What Forex Target Traders See: Aussie is currently @ 0.9190 at the top of a well-built down trend. We are looking for the wedge break to signal the move down to the S8 (from the pivot point) @ 0.8978. We could go as low as the Day chart bottom @ 0.8778. Don’t rule out a break out north to the 0.9409 area for a square up. The average (14 day) daily true range (ATR) for the pair currently is 129 pips.
Hầu hết những bất hạnh chúng ta lo lắng không bao giờ thành hiện thực. Trên thực tế, 85% nỗi sợ hãi của mọi người không bao giờ xảy ra, theo nhà tâm lý học Tiến sĩ Robert Leahy. Kiến thức mà hầu hết những lo lắng không bao giờ xảy ra có thể là một chiến lược trong thế giới tài chính mà hầu hết những người mới bỏ qua. Nỗi sợ hãi giữa các nhà đầu tư là một lý do khiến giá tài sản giảm, nhưng nếu chúng ta biết rằng 85% thời gian những nỗi sợ đó là không có cơ sở, chúng ta cũng biết rằng giá giảm tương ứng có khả năng bị hạn chế. Cái nhìn sâu sắc này thực sự có thể cung cấp một cơ hội giao dịch có thể đưa bạn đi trước đường cong. Bán một tài sản ngay khi bắt đầu sụp đổ tạo ra lợi nhuận cao nhất, nhưng làm thế nào một nhà giao dịch có thể nhận được cảnh báo sớm đó. Phân tích kỹ thuật Giao dịch yếu tố sợ hãi là một chiến lược mà về cơ bản chúng ta ‘mua sợ hãi’. Chiến lược này là duy nhất bởi vì không có AI hoặc thuật toán nào có thể ảnh hưởng đến cảm xúc của con người hoặc tâm lý bầy đàn. Một vấn đề là thời gian. Rất thường thị trường sẽ tiếp tục giảm trong một thời gian sau khi nỗi sợ hãi xuất hiện. Tại thời điểm nào bạn mua nỗi sợ? Nhảy vào quá sớm và bạn có thể phải vượt qua một đợt giảm giá lớn. Điều đó tốt nếu bạn có túi sâu như Warren Buffet, nhưng đối với phần còn lại của chúng tôi, nó có thể đánh vần thảm họa. Một giải pháp có thể là sử dụng phân tích kỹ thuật để giúp thời gian rẽ. Trong khi không có cách nào dễ dàng để gọi đáy, có rất nhiều công cụ cụ thể có sẵn để trợ giúp. Chúng bao gồm các mô hình đảo chiều cổ điển như đáy đôi, hội tụ động lượng, mô hình đảo chiều nến, phân tích sóng Elliot và các chỉ báo DeMark. Tất cả các chỉ số này được cài đặt sẵn trên nền tảng MT4 và khi được áp dụng cho yếu tố sợ hãi, tạo ra một triển vọng hoàn toàn khác về biến động giá, nhưng yếu tố con người là một phần của phương trình tạo ra sự khác biệt. Kết hợp cả hai và bạn sẽ có được một chiến lược giao dịch rất độc đáo và mạnh mẽ. Warren Buffet từng nổi tiếng khuyên các nhà đầu tư nên mua hàng khi những người khác sợ hãi và bán khi họ tham lam. Năm 2008-09 ở đỉnh điểm của cuộc khủng hoảng tài chính lớn, mặc dù lo ngại rằng toàn bộ hệ thống ngân hàng sẽ đi vào tường tư vấn riêng và bình tĩnh mua cổ phiếu ngân hàng sau khi họ đã giảm giá hời. Mặc dù phải mất hai nỗ lực để Quốc hội phê chuẩn một gói cứu trợ, cuối cùng họ đã làm được và chú Sam đã đến giải cứu. Cổ phiếu ngân hàng nhanh chóng tăng giá và cuối cùng Buffet đã có lời rất lớn. Những ví dụ trước đây về nỗi sợ di chuyểnthị trường Chẳng hạn, năm 2016, đồng Euro suy yếu khi nỗi sợ hãi lan rộng rằng chủ nghĩa dân tộc sắp tràn ngập châu Âu. Tuy nhiên, cả trong cuộc bầu cử tổng thống Pháp, nơi Marine Le Pen, ứng cử viên mặt trận quốc gia đã thua Emmanuel Macron, và tại Hà Lan, nơi đảng Tự do dân túy Geert Wilders chỉ giành được 13,1% phiếu bầu, những nỗi sợ này đã được chứng minh quá mức. Sau cuộc bầu cử, Euro đã bắt đầu một cuộc biểu tình kéo dài nhiều tháng. Trong năm 2011-12, đồng Euro cũng lao dốc vì lo ngại lây nhiễm và ‘sự kết thúc của thị trường tài chính làm rung chuyển đồng Euro sau khi ba quốc gia, Hy Lạp, Ireland và Bồ Đào Nha, tất cả đều vỡ nợ. Cuối cùng, những nỗi sợ hãi này đã được chứng minh là quá mức và các cuộc khủng hoảng đã được ngăn chặn. Nhìn chung, điều này không có gì đáng ngạc nhiên vì GDP kết hợp của ba quốc gia chỉ chiếm 6% tổng Eurozone nên thiệt hại mà họ có thể gây ra luôn có khả năng bị hạn chế. Sau khi ECB can thiệp bằng một chương trình các biện pháp, thị trường đã bình tĩnh trở lại và trong năm 2013, đồng Euro đã tăng điểm. Xem tin tức để ra quyết định Khi kiểm tra tin tức tài chính và lịch kinh tế điện tử, bạn sẽ bắt đầu thấy các bài viết thúc đẩy sự sợ hãi. Công việc của bạn là một nhà giao dịch là tự hỏi bản thân xem dự báo có khác với thông thường không. Brexit là một để kiểm tra. Nhìn lại 12 tháng qua và xem những gì phát hành đã ảnh hưởng đến thị trường và những gì xảy ra ngay sau đó. Đã có một sự trở lại trong giá? Lần tới khi bạn nghe thấy lời cam kết và u ám, bạn có thể muốn đợi cho đến khi sự sụt giảm ban đầu xảy ra, và sau đó xem xét lệnh mua kịp thời để bắt kịp sự đảo chiều. Để tìm hiểu sâu hơn về Forex bạn hãy vào Group Telegram để nhận thêm nhiều kiến thức, tin tức và chiên lược giao dịch TẠI ĐÂY
Современная индустрия криптовалют предлагает массу различных способов заработка на криптовалютах. Однако основными все же считаются 3 способа: майнинг, холдинг и трейдинг. Разберем детально, что представляют собой эти способы и какие преимущества у каждого из них. Майнинг Майнинг (от англ. mining — добыча полезных ископаемых). Этот способ подразумевает собой заработок криптовалют путем участия в создании новых блоков в блокчейне для обеспечения функционирования, собственно, самих криптовалют. Самыми распространёнными являются алгоритмы POW (Proof-of-work - доказательство выполнения работы) и POS (Proof-of-stake - доказательство доли владения). И если для POW-майнинга необходимо иметь специальное оборудование и обладать специализированными знаниями, то POS-майнинг подразумевает исключительно покупку криптовалюты и размещения ее в специальном кошельке. Трейдинг Трейдинг (от англ. Trader «торговец»). Это один из основных способов заработка на криптовалюте, задача которого «стара как Мир»: купить как можно дешевле, продать подороже и получить прибыль. Торговля криптовалютами похожа на торговлю на Forex или фондовом рынке, но отличается более высокой волатильностью курсов. Это является одновременно и плюсом, и минусом трейдинга криптовалют, так как бывают случаи, когда удачливые трейдеры получают тысячи процентов доходности от сделки, в то время как на других рынках о таких возможностях даже не приходится мечтать… но с другой стороны, и потерять деньги в случае неудачного трейда гораздо проще – неопытный трейдер может с легкостью «спустить» свой депозит в считанные часы. Холдинг Холдинг (от англ. Hold «держать». Здесь нужно отметить, что само знаменитое слово «Hodl», является интернет-мемом и впервые появившийся на легендарном форуме Bitcointalk в 2013 году, как опечатка в слове holding - хранение). Это пассивный вид заработка на криптовалютах, представляющий собой стратегию, при которой пользователь покупает криптовалюту и «забывает» про нее, то есть не торгует, а просто ждет продолжительное время, пока его актив растет в цене. Как бы странно это не казалось на первый взгляд, но Холд считается самой выгодной стратегией. Это своеобразный аналог стратегии «купи и держи» применяемой на фондовом рынке. Настоящие холдеры только покупают криптовалюту и не продают, вне зависимости от колебаний цен на рынке. Такая стратегия является выигрышной, потому что в долгосрочной перспективе курс криптовалют всегда показывает положительную динамику и, соответственно, продать монеты можно с максимальной выгодой. А какая стратегия больше подходит Вам? Напишите в комментариях. https://preview.redd.it/c6lzjpv6tyg51.png?width=1080&format=png&auto=webp&s=88a00568364203319b4986c5aa9eb53768682ade 🔥🔥🔥🔥🔥🔥🔥🔥🔥🔥🔥🔥🔥🔥🔥🔥🔥🔥🔥🔥🔥🔥🔥🔥🔥🔥🔥🔥🔥🔥🔥🔥🔥🔥🔥🔥🔥🔥🔥🔥🔥🔥🔥🔥 ⬇ Больше полезной и интересной информации по ссылкам: 🌐 Сайт: https://yusra.global/ 🧰 Веб-кошелек: http://app.yusra.global 📩 Telegram-чат: https://t.me/YUSRAGLOBAL #YusraGlobal #Yusra #Yusra_Global #криптовалюта #криптовалюты #cryptocurrency #crypto #blockchain #блокчейн #mining #майнинг #token #токен #Bitcoin #BTC #Биткоин #вознаграждениезадоверие #ОтзывыYusra #СообществоYusra
Желаете зарабатывать на международном валютном рынке? Лицензированный брокер QTM-trade поможет в этом. Компания положительно зарекомендовала себя на протяжении последних 7 лет. Основана в далеком 2013 г, предлагает своим клиентам качественные услуги: ● индивидуальное обучение профессиональными трейдерами; ● торговля по сигналам аналитика; ● многофункциональная платформа. qtm-trade.com
Торговля на Форекс
Программное обеспечение для валютных спекуляций построено на базе терминала компании UTIP, она универсальна и быстро работает на любом устройстве, будь то ПК, ноутбук, смартфон и планшет. Исполнение ордеров занимает 0,00001 сек, без простоя. Организация UTIP уже довольно длительное время совершенствует свою разработку, поэтому работать с терминалом можно не устанавливая его на ПК, была специально разработана WEB версия так как среди клиентов она очень востребована и более 70% пользователей торгуют в браузере, что позволяет с легкостью: ● совершать торговые сделки (акций, товарных фьючерсов); ● проводить торги с валютными парами, сырьем, ценными металлами; ● Анализировать графики посредством индикаторов и осцилляторов; ● Производить графические построения на графике; Всего компания предлагает более 180 торговых инструментов, отдельно стоит выделить криптовалюту, благодаря тому, что ее добавили на платформу – клиенты могут производить спекуляции не опасаясь за сохранность средств, ведь широко известный факт показывал, что криптобиржи часто подвержены хакерским атакам, а это накладывает на клиентов риск потери средств.
Инвестиции: как зарабатывать на пассиве?
Forex – это стабильный рынок с колоссальным оборотом средств, который достигает 4-5 триллионов долларов каждый день. По этой причине многие инвесторы довольно часто обращаются к нему как к инструменту для быстрого и стабильного заработка. Инвестировать можно: - самостоятельно, что подразумевает покупку или продажу например, валютной пары и удержания позиции длительный период времени - передавать средства в управление инвестиционным фондам - доверять управление капиталом частным трейдерам. Финансовая организация предлагает своим клиентам сервис по торговле с аналитиком, что подразумевает открытие инвестором позиций на своем счету по тем сигналам, которые дает ему трейдер компании. Такой способ инвестирования дает клиенту: - Безопасность, ведь сделки совершаются непосредственно на счету инвестора - Открытость, все сделки доступны и невозможно проводить с ними какие-либо махинации - Надежность – брокер QTM-trade это лицензированная компания, получившая разрешение на свою деятельность в Великобритании, которая славится самым жестким финансовым регулятором, который обязывает любую финансовую организацию вести максимально прозрачный вид деятельности. - Стабильную прибыль – управлением капиталом занимаются профессиональные торговцы, которые имеют огромные опыт в трейдинге (от 10 лет каждый), что позволяет предоставить инвесторам отличную доходность (средняя прибыль по счетам за 2019 год 143%) Для того, чтобы начать инвестировать в Forex – достаточно зарегистрироваться на сайте qtm-trade.com, пополнить свой аккаунт согласно тарифным планам и связаться со своим персональным аналитиком.
Как научиться торговать в «плюс»
QTM trade отзывы Многие люди приходят на Форекс в поиске новых возможностей для заработка, но, чтобы зарабатывать, стоит иметь базовые экономические, финансовые знания, чтобы не потерять, а сохранить и приумножить свои средства. Понимая эту необходимость, QTM trade разработал специальный обучающий курс лекций с практикой. На уроках новичок узнает все тонкости трейдинга, а полученные знания позволят каждому создать свою собственную торговую стратегию и выйти на желаемый доход в кратчайшие сроки. Приступить к обучению может любой зарегистрированный клиент компании.
Есть ли реальные отзывы о QTM-Trade?
Компания работает на рынке уже довольно долго, а количество положительных отзывов позволяет понять, что брокеру стоит доверять. Большая часть полезной информации располагается на тематических блогах, а также в рейтингах, в которых, к слову, QTM занимает лидирующие позиции. Изучите информацию. Это поможет убедиться в открытости брокера, а также о качестве услуг, которые он предоставляет. О Qtm-trade отзывы подтверждают хорошую репутацию, а также заинтересованность в достатке клиентов. Вывод: производить валютные операции, а также доверять деньги управляющим это очень прибыльно. Если Вы долгое время присматривались к этому направлению но не решались начать – самое время начать заручившись поддержкой надежного партнера.
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FOREX TOP PAIR EUR/USD deals of all 1/3 EUR/USD 1.30011.3000 Selling price (Bid) Buying price (Ask) Base Currency Quote Currency 28% EUR/USDEUR/USD Point (Pip) The fourth unit after the decimal point, which is the smallest unit of an exchange rate. Spread The difference between the sell quote and the buy quote (in pips). forex portal free download - ASPapp Portal, Forex Software, Robot Forex 2013 Profesional, and many more programs In all, $5.3 trillion (£3.3tn) was traded per day on the forex markets in 2013, according to the Bank for International Settlements. To put that in context, that's just over double the annual ... The site is a highly informative one and contains all the vital information that any binary trader would want to know. In this article, you can learn about the major points of difference about binary options & Forexpo 2013 forex trading. Have a great time! In 2013 we have selected top Forex industry performers in a historical maximum of nominations - 28. The growing number of Awards is recognizing a boost in the technology and customer service Forex trading is facing. Forex Winners – Top Forex Companies 2013. Best Forex Broker USA: Oanda.
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Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. Keeley Kmiecia - FX 2013 2013 World Gymnastics Championships Larisa Iordache Floor Final in Antwerp. Weekly Wrap-up & Outlook: Review of recent price action and a look at what we can expect to see. The purpose of these sessions is to show participants how we...